Archive for the ‘autism’ Category
To those who celebrated, I hope your Christmas was a blessed one. I also wish the same for a nine-year-old autistic boy at the center of a Louisville, Kent. school controversy when word got out that staff members at Mercer County Intermediate School stuffed Christopher Baker inside a duffel bag for allegedly acting out on Dec. 14. Chris is enrolled in a special needs program there.
The Kentucky Department of Education has no laws regarding restraint or seclusion, although an autistic Georgetown University student started a petition calling to fire the school employees responsible. The online petition had over 700 signatures at the publication date.
Thankfully, I can say I was never placed in a duffel bag when I was in school, or I’d probably be at the center of a lawsuit. However, controversies over how the education system handles autistic children still appear in mainstream news cycles periodically. With no uniform system in place for training on autistic students, coupled with varying levels of intervention behaviors chosen by education specialists, such actions are theoretically possible if educators are unprepared.
The biggest difficulty with the lack of a streamlined system are public school employees who do not understand the symptoms of autism. This does not suggest that all of them will choose actions that compromise the safety of students, but if their patience is low, they will be more likely to exhibit an impulsive emotional response.
Bruce Schreiner of the Associated Press published the story, which was then syndicated on Huffington Post. The story is largely a reaction piece that interviews Christopher’s mother (the school cited confidentiality laws and refused to comment on the incident specifically), the Georgetown student who started the petition to fire school employees, and a former teacher who blogs about autism issues.
Generally, controversial stories revolve around what two parties are thinking, as reporters either on deadline or lacking journalistic intuition consider getting both sides of a story satisfactory. Schreiner goes one step deeper, researching the larger public’s response to the incident. While more sources may not change the tone of a “he-said she-said” story, but just as surveys decrease their margin of error when their sample size increases, quoting subjects not involved in the center of an altercation provides a better consensus of the situation’s brevity. As a result, readers will more likely get the idea that what the school did to Chris would violate rules or laws in other states.
Obtaining outside sources also develops a well-rounded story. When facing controversial topics, the “defendant” is often hesitant to speak either in an attempt to hide guilt or to control damage. Reporters shouldn’t be “out to get them,” but having a neutral go-to source to spell out an event’s significance will offer analysis or details that will likely be skipped by both the accuser and defender.
Odds suggest a follow-up story will be found on Huffington Post or the Associated Press if Mercer County School reaches a decision, but until then, the story highlights what all of us could add when taking the effort to expand the source pool.
As we enter the holiday season, I want to thank all my new readers who discovered the site this year, causing an exponential growth in traffic, even as my posting schedule was more sporadic than 2010.
2011 was a considerable year for television exposure. In April, Holly Robinson Peete hosted a weekly series on CBS daytime program The Talk. Although her contract wasn’t renewed for this season, throwing a cloud of doubt in future features on that show, Peete highlighted a few groups often ignored in mainstream media coverage.
Syfy joined the foray this summer with the drama series Alphas, featuring a group of people with superhuman abilities. One of the main characters is autistic man Gary Bell, portrayed by British actor Ryan Cartwright. Cartwright and the production staff took several steps to ensure accuracy in depicting the condition, and both will get more chances to display the disability as the show was renewed for a 2nd season in 2012.
A lot of articles I discussed this year focused on brain research, including theories on unique brain maps of autistic children and the possibility of heavier brains caused by an overflow of neurons. Of course, such studies need to be flushed more thoroughly before they are accepted as widespread fact, but research will never cease.
You can read more autism notables by clicking here. With my new position as autism bear writer for Examiner, I will be transferring some content to that site, including reviews of television or movies that feature some glimpse of autism, subtle or blatant. I will still dissect articles on this site, but will link them to Examiner for stories with relevant material.
I have at least one more story to analyze before the calendar year is out, but it was a fun year watching my audience grow right before me. May that rise continue in 2012.
Intrigued by why my site received a spike in search traffic, I discovered The Onion brought back a well-known fictional character in the autism community: Michael Falk. Actor John Cariani returns for more lampooning for the fictitious Onion News Network, which airs Tuesday nights on IFC.
In Falk’s latest “story,” he profiles a convicted felon who details the changes in lifestyle from a 40,000 square foot mansion to a tiny prison cell. However, the prisoner is dumbfounded when Falk is spellbound by a strict adherence to routine inmates must live by during their incarceration. The more details the criminal reveals, the more interest Falk has in a living condition with little to no room for ad-lib.
The prisoner attempts to quell such interest to no avail as Falk declares his desire to join his subject in prison, oblivious to the warnings of emotional turmoil experienced by inmates who regret the crimes they commit as he fantasizes about the crates his guest has to stack on a daily basis. Falk even shrugs off embezzlement and fraud as taking too long to land in prison.
(Un)fortunately, a myriad of ways exist to land in prison for a criminal charge. I shall not disclose those methods on the rare chance some crazed psychopath reads this blog post and draws inspiration to commit morally reprehensible behavior (and I have no intent on violating laws today, tomorrow, or yesterday). However, I can offer additional insights as The Onion was clearly not affected by the smattering of blog posts criticizing Cariani’s previous performances as mocking members of the autism spectrum.
I received a recent comment on my first post on the Falk character. While some autistic people take offense to The Onion‘s portrayal, others in the blog world find Michael Falk amusing. Some even suggest Falk’s stories are a tongue-in-cheek parody where others who fail to grasp the condition serve as comic foils. An argument could be made watching all three stories featuring Falk, as all of his interview subjects are either left confused or offended by his blunt approach to communication. Mainstream media previously made such frustrations a focal point in their content, with the premise of Rain Man being Charlie Babbitt’s (Tom Cruise) struggle to adapt and accept the distinctive qualities of his autistic brother, Raymond (Dustin Hoffman). Autism Speaks’ controversial Autism Every Day profiled the feelings of hopelessness from parents of autistic children, and even traces of such concerns can be found in the Syfy series Alphas.
Whatever the intent, The Onion is making its audience more aware of the disability by playing off common characteristics found in those diagnosed with autism. If the synopsis or video is not enough clarification, Onion News Network parodied the fixation on routines and repetitive tasks which autistic people often find enjoyable, sometimes at the cost of environmental surroundings (Falk doesn’t understand that going to prison is an event that should be avoided). Since the fake news organization has a mission statement of satirizing the follies of mainstream media and its subjects, interpreting Cariani’s latest performance beyond a comical look at an often-repeated symptom on traditional news outlets is difficult to theorize. For anyone concerned about an autistic person seeing this and taking the video too literally, recent news reports highlight programs and efforts to employ autistic people in favorable conditions, which include repetitive work details.
You don’t have to find this or any other video funny, but it appears Falk will continue to appear as a recurring Onion News Network character. While a precedent has been set for expected emotional reactions to the fake stories, there are learning opportunities in a comedic format enjoyed by many consumers as opposed to the dry, heavy-handed presentations found elsewhere.
A story picked up by several news outlets, including Reuters and ABC News (whose version I’m critiquing in this post), reports results of a small study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association that suggest autistic children have heavier brains and an overflow of brain cells called neurons.
The study is crucial because it presents the first exhibit of hard evidence of brain development veering off course for autistic children. Previous research showed that autistic children have larger heads and brains, with key regions that develop communication overgrown.
The study, using brains of 13 boys that were donated for scientific study after their deaths, discovered that brains of autistic children have 67 percent more neurons in the prefrontal cortex than non-autistic brains. The prefrontal cortex is linked to emotional, social and communication processing. The study’s lead author notes how surprising the finding was, also suggesting the abnormal development occurs in the prenatal stages as neurons aren’t generated in the prefrontal cortex after birth. Autistic brains also weighed 17.5 percent more than non-autistic brains.
While a future avenue could be explored in the research to find a cause, many point out the findings are preliminary and don’t apply to children and families currently dealing with autism. There is also no way to analyze brain tissue of living children.
The small sample size and lack of immediate impact may discourage some readers upon encountering this story. However, the findings are notable with several major outlets offering their version of the results published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Although not new, the story does reveal through autism brain research that a physical characteristic that could possibly signal the condition exists, but not every person with a larger-than-average head will automatically develop the disability.
As with most study findings, extrapolating the results to a form that fits mainstream journalism remains simple, yet difficult. When combining the small number of brains studied with the lack of any immediate significance for the autism community, the challenge for reporters is seeking a relevant development for a scientific breakthrough. In this case, Gann points out that discovering that an abnormal development occurs before birth could lead to improved screening efforts in the future.
Another possible avenue that could be investigated with the knowledge of this study are what effects larger, heavier brains with more neurons could have on autistic people. Several stories on this blog and general knowledge will highlight the untapped gifts of the autism spectrum, including superior memory skills and focus. This is by no means a suggestion that larger brains equal smarter people, but considering the astonishment from the public when autistic people demonstrate skills with general knowledge, but a plethora of stories relating to autism and the brain could be found should this study lead to more examinations.
For now, we’ll have to settle for current methods of diagnosis as science always approaches its studies with a methodical attitude.
How does a reporter fight a case of insomnia? By doing some research to write another blog post!
In my efforts to unearth the resurgence of popularity for Jason McElwain five years after his memorable 20-point game that propelled him to permanent celebrity status among the autism community (a 2006 CBS Evening News feature was recently shared among Facebook users), I found a story published last week by Craig Fox of the Watertown Daily Times. The 22-year-old McElwain can add public speaking to his credits, as Fox documented his speech to a crowd of 100 at the Jefferson Rehabilitation House’s annual dinner in upstate New York.
Fox recaps McElwain’s life-changing game that recently gained a second coming on Facebook with its users sharing the story once more, but notes a few details from McElwain’s speech the audience may not have known when he first was a media sensation. McElwain attended a special education school at a young age and didn’t understand why until years of inquiry led to his mother telling him about his autism diagnosis. He tried out for Greece Athena High School’s junior varsity team, but didn’t make the cut. His “failure” led to his position as team manager, running drills in practice and doing whatever was asked of him.
Fox also reveals where McElwain picked up his “J-Mac” nickname, given to him by Athena varsity coach Jim Johnson because he had a difficult time pronouncing Jason’s last name. Johnson had no difficulties rewarding his loyal manager, letting him suit up for the final regular season game, where McElwain nailed six three-pointers and a deuce to finish as the game’s high scorer. McElwain told his audience he achieved his dream while shooting hoops in the driveway of making the game’s last shot. However, he considers Athena’s Section 5 title that year to be a bigger moment for that roster.
Fitting with his passion for sports, his favorite moment in the aftermath wasn’t meeting President George W. Bush, Oprah Winfrey, or writing his autobiography. McElwain is most proud of earning a 2006 ESPY Award for Best Sports Moment of the Year and working as an equipment manager for the NFL’s Indianapolis Colts, which included a meeting with quarterback Peyton Manning.
McElwain will start his fourth year as junior varsity coach for Athena, where he also coaches the track and cross country teams. He also is training to run a marathon in Rochester, New York as he continues to live life the way he wanted to when he was little, as “one of the boys.”
Fox illuminates how time can benefit journalists when the concept itself appears ironic with a schedule filled by story deadlines. Once McElwain’s life-changing game video surfaced, every news outlet in any form that covered the story focused almost exclusively on the game. ESPN was first to provide a back-story, producing a feature that ran in the 2006 NBA Finals about how McElwain inspired the country, including a young autistic boy who also took up an interest in basketball (his father played for Richmond and orchestrated an upset of Syracuse in the first round of the NCAA tournament). More stories would surface occasionally following up on the man who stood 5’6″ his senior year and hit 6’0″ before he finished growing, each detailing a new note to readers caught up in the hoopla of McElwain’s public appearances and meetings in the weeks and months following his 20-point game.
While the details don’t provide an insight that would drastically change the story, Fox does reveal just how deep McElwain’s passion for sports. Fox also enlightens us on Jason’s exploits as everyone’s favorite autistic basketball players continues his mission to be “just one of the guys.” As I noted in my last post, the shift from solely dwelling on autism’s deficits to embracing its advantages will play a key role in the future direction of the autism population. McElwain benefits from this not because he can remember what you ate for breakfast on a specific day five years ago, but because his biggest interest is an area shared by many people in many backgrounds. In fact, I have yet to read a story that summarizes just what exactly McElwain’s specific deficits are, making it clear that acts of greatness can transcend a status quo.
Of course, his passion for sports is an assist, because sports itself is considered the great unification among communities. No polarizing politics, no debates about morality or the economy, just a bunch of people relishing in the talent of their athletic idols. Fox won’t be the last reporter to tell McElwain’s story, and every time we see Jason appear, look for another of his endeavors to appear that will reinforce the notion autism shares a similarity with other disabilities: they’re merely obstacles to be cleared.
I’m aware of my most recent hiatus, which was partly due to Minnesota Lynx playoff coverage and Minnesota state high school tournament coverage, but now I’ve returned with a new story to share.
Unfortunately, my blog was not selected a winner in WCCO’s Most Valuable Blogger competition, but I appreciate those of you who still paid visits in my absence. While I continue to research a renewed fascination in the blogosphere and social media regarding Jason McElwain, the health page from NBC’s daytime program Today published a story about a Canadian researcher who argues scientists need to stop viewing autistic traits as flaws that need correction. Dr. Laurent Mottron, a psychiatry professor at the University of Montreal, reflects on recent data and personal experience in his assessment of the disability.
Mottron said researchers who notice activation in unusual regions of the brain compared to the average human, they report such activity as a deficit than an alternative brain organization. He nor most researchers will minimize the concerning outlook facing autistic people, but he advocates they can succeed in a favorable environment, including the field of research. Mottron has several autistic people working in his lab, where they can utilize their exceptional memories. Mottron believes intellectual problem may be over-estimated among autistic people because of inappropriate testing, saying how there is little hesitation to remove audible components for people with hearing impairments. In general, the research field has adapted a broader and deeper view of the disorder, although autism still presents many obstacles.
Rachael Rettner is the woman behind this story, and she reports on another changing trend in the approach to autism by science and mainstream media. While stories of struggle and the future will continue to permeate Google news feeds, the public has been exposed to potential benefits of the condition as far back as Rain Man, released in 1988. Rettner’s story isn’t groundbreaking either, as this blog does have a history of procuring articles on success stories in the autism community. However, with much fear about what autistic children and adults will be able to do, the story is part of a larger paradigm over the exact response about the enlarging base of autistic people. Many are quick to see action in order to address major problems, while others are concerned about an over-bearing assumption that autistic people need intervention in order to conform to expected values of mainstream society. Gauging where the discussion is tilting is difficult to evaluate given the unpredictable and inconsistent effects of autism, but researchers like Mottron see a vastly under-tapped potential that could benefit the community if utilized properly.
Talk about adaptation versus conformation will continue assuming many forms and tones. The conversation Rettner highlights is heavy on science and low on emotional output, without bold and temperamental claims that can sometimes fog progress. There is no question people given an autism diagnosis face a task tougher than a 16-seed playing a 1-seed in the NCAA basketball tournament, and reporters like Rettner will possess responsibility and influence in dictating the direction of the ongoing quest to determine what path, if any, should be laid for those who “think different.”
Erin Allday of the San Francisco Chronicle filed an article this weekend reporting a Stanford University research project suggesting autistic children have a distinctive topography within their brains, based on data obtained from brain scans of 24 autistic children between ages 8 and 18 when compared to scans of 24 non-autistic children. Unlike previous studies that analyzed the overall volume of the brain, where it was found that autistic children generally have larger than average brains, but the information wasn’t refined enough to be useful in diagnosing or treating the disorder, the Stanford study sectioned brain scans into tiny cubes and compared the size and structure through computer analysis. What they found was a pattern of organization in regions of the brain affecting communication and self-awareness particular to autistic children (communication and awareness are hallmark facets that autism affects).
The brain maps applied to 80 to 90 percent of autistic children, and the research pinpoints a potential bio-marker should the maps be replicated in a larger group of children. While the research is years away from application in the real world, coupled with questions about the method’s validity in screening children, the goal is providing refined treatments and clearer understanding of autism’s impact on a vital organ. The research was published online in the journal Biological Psychiatry.
Numerous studies and endless research attempts to find a biological indicator for autism spectrum disorder will continue as long as the cause of the condition remains unknown. On this blog, I’ve covered urine tests and studies on genetic proteins as potential signs to determine whether or not a person fits the autism spectrum. The explorations of so many subjects aren’t all that different from “old wife’s tales” of treating various conditions. When there’s a lack of concrete indicators for a disorder or disease, researchers task themselves to discovering at least one answer. Throughout the quest, numerous possibilities and theories emerge until further research either eliminates them or creates new support to continue investigating a certain topic. Unfortunately, the process is agonizingly long and often ignored by a mainstream audience thirsting for instant gratification, and that’s one reason why stories I cover on biological research often mentions such studies are years away from widespread relevance.
Another reason? Small sample sizes. In order to determine whether a theory is potentially correct or not while avoiding over-exerting resources, autism studies will generally use a localized test group that rarely breaks four figures. This story is one example of how quickly patterns and similarities can be found among people with a particular condition, and that itself is progress compared to scientific observations of autism 20 years ago.
Allday goes through the usual angles in covering this story, explaining autism’s rapid growth while a solution to finding the cause continues. I’ve mentioned before that stories on studies are difficult to provide detailed information because what is published is usually an early step of testing a hypothesis. Allday tempers any reader who may spout that a bio-sign was found by uncovering the unknown usefulness of the research itself. Stories like hers will continue to be published to newspapers as a “mainstream translation” of what is disseminated by journals, even though answers lie far beyond. However, when a biological cause is found, reporters will hopefully have at least one story of their own to reference.